The tabulations from the 2010 census are available and you can find them at several places on the internet.
The Census Bureau has created a separate address for the 2010 data at http://2010.census.gov/2010census/. This site makes it easy to look at some of the more interesting trends in the country such as The Older Population, Congressional Apportionment, and Regional shifts in population.
If you’d like more precision in locating 2010 data use the American FactFinder. This interface allows you to create maps, download data for manipulation, and includes older data as well as economic and employment statistics to name just a couple.
One of the easiest ways to get data (the Census Bureau seems to enjoy creating websites and running words together) is QuickFacts. By making a few quick selections you can get the new statistics on states, counties and cities of 5,000 or more people. For instance you can quickly see that Sunnyvale grew 6.3% between 2000 and 2010 whereas California grew 10% in the same period.
But even more exciting to you genealogists out there, the National Archives and Records Administration will make individual records available from the 1940 census on April 2. Watch the brief video for more information and have fun looking up your family!